Do randomized clinical trials with inadequate blinding report enhanced placebo effects for intervention groups and nocebo effects for placebo groups?

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We found clear evidence that studies assessing a subjective continuous outcome fail to report on measures taken to secure double blinding. Although we observed a trend for the presence of a nocebo effect, there was insufficient evidence to quantify its impact on expectations. RCTs with patients with no prior experience with PDE-5 inhibitors reported larger placebo effects and possibly these studies were better blinded. Future research should further investigate the factors that contribute to blinding and their impact on health outcomes in randomized trials of subjectively assessed conditions.

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